(Posted on 05/02/19)
Originally oriental rugs were made manually, usually weaved on wooden frame. Weavers used to hold an ornament in their memory, which was transferred from hands to hands. Then special curves which enclosed(laid) under ducks later appeared. As a sample the available carpet might serve the master.
As it was already told, the basic and best material for oriental rugs from most ancient times is the natural sheep wool. In XX century, for the sake of cheapening the products, they began to apply a cotton, flax and synthetics. For expensive wall rugs in olden time silk was used.
For a long time, chemical dyes for textiles was dominated by aniline. Invented in 1847, they quickly began to be distributed, and in 1853 have already reached Iran. Aniline dyes have allowed to put manufacture of rugs on industrial rails. At first these substances were not yet able to adhere, and were flew from water. But the problem was completely solved by 20th years of the last century. Red and orange colours are most vulnerable in sense of a moult. Today aniline paints are gradually superseded polymeric and synthetic which do not require fastening and do not fade. The advanced or third generation of dyes is chromic, they are practically indistinguishable from natural dyes.